WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies (formerly known as IJEAS : International Journal of East Asian Studies) aims to provide a platform for exchanges of ideas related to the East Asian region with particular emphasis on Japan, China and Korea. It offers informative and insightful multidisciplinary discourse for academics, policymakers and students alike. The result is a provocative exploration of the most pressing East Asian political, economic and social challenges of our time. WILAYAH is a blind peer-reviewed publication by the <a href="https://eas.um.edu.my/">Department of East Asian Studies</a>, <a href="https://fass.um.edu.my/">Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences</a>, <a href="https://www.um.edu.my/">University of Malaya</a>, Malaysia.</p> <div> <div>eISSN: 2785-941X / <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2462-2257">2462-2257</a><br />Print ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN-L/2232-0679">2232-0679</a><br />Publication Type: Electronic and Print<br />Publication frequency: 1 time, per year. (In March every year starting 2021. Previous years published in every December)<br />Journal Website: ijeas.um.edu.my<br />Publisher: Department of East Asian Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia</div> <div>Enquiries: ijeas@um.edu.my<br />Indexing and Abstracting: <a href="http://www.mycite.my/en/general-search/result/journal?sort=citations&amp;order=desc&amp;token=604987853bc34&amp;keyword=International+Journal+of+East+Asian+Studies&amp;submit=Search">MyJournal</a>; <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=IJEAS&amp;from_ui=&amp;container-title=International+Journal+of+East+Asian+Studies">CrossRef</a>; <a href="https://road.issn.org/">Directory of Open Acess Scholarly Resources (ROAD)</a></div> </div> en-US <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>Submission of a manuscript to the WILAYAH implies that the submitted work has not been published before (except as part of a thesis or report or abstract), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that all co-authors have approved its publication. The WILAYAH : International Journal of East Asian Studies adopts CC BY license. As such, we would be grateful if an acknowledgement accompanies the republication that the work was originally published in WILAYAH. The editors will ensure digital preservation of access to the journal content by the Journal <a href="https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/issue/archive">depository section. </a><strong id="m_4863372954928520277yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1499518718599_9241"></strong></p> <p><strong>Disclaimer</strong></p> <p>Although the Department of East Asian Studies is the publisher of the WILAYAH : International Journal of East Asian Studies, the views presented in the WILAYAH are entirely those of the contributors and do not reflect the official stand of the Department of East Asian Studies. The Department does not hold itself responsible for the accuracy of any article published. Publisher and co-publishers assume no responsibility, nor by the editors for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a result of any actual or alleged libellous statements, infringement of intellectual property or privacy rights, or products liability, whether resulting from negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any ideas, instructions, procedures, products or methods contained in the material therein.</p> ijeas@um.edu.my (Dr. Geetha Govindasamy & Dr. Asmadi Hassan) madisan@um.edu.my (Dr. Asmadi Hassan) Sat, 30 Sep 2023 05:15:40 +0800 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA MELAYU DI JEPUN https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/44340 <p>The Japanese started learning Malay at the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. The first Malay primer was published in the 1900s. A number of books and dictionaries of Malay were published thereafter exceeding 200 titles. The Japanese began to sail to the Southeast Asian region, especially the Malay peninsula and the Dutch East Indies’ islands after the Tokugwa Shogunate administration ended and Meiji period began in 1868. The Japanese moved to Nanyo (the southern regions) of Japan to seek their fortune as small shopkeepers, peddlers and some even became prostitutes. Japanese enterprises were stimulated by the so-called Nanshin Ron (Advance Southward Ideology), which prevailed in the 1920s and 1930s. They gradually operated rubber plantations and iron mine companies and other businesses as well. In terms of economic activities, it was necessary to learn the languages of the locals for business communications and business interests. They thought Malay was the most prominent communication tool among the many languages used in the southern regions. For this purpose, the Japanese began learning Malay in schools in Japan. The peak of Malay learning was the time of Japanese expansion policy based on militarism in the 1940s. The total number of publications of primer and dictionary reached more than 50 titles during this period. After the end of the Second World War, Malay language learning did not receive much attention in Japanese society but it changed when business interest in Southeast Asia became stimulated by government policy including war reparations. The article provides a rough sketch of Malay language learning in Japan in the first place and in the final part discusses how Japanese government and society have maintained and promoted their own language and identity as a policy to develop the nation and state in terms of language teaching in both foreign languages and national language.</p> Mikihiro Moriyama Copyright (c) 2023 WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/44340 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0800 FROM CONFLICT TO COOPERATION: HOW SYNTHETIC RUBBER INSTRUMENTAL IN CULMINATING JAPAN-ASEAN TIES https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/45502 <p>This article analyzes the overview of Japan-ASEAN relations since their interaction 50 years ago. Japan-ASEAN relations in the late 1960s and early 1970s were less encouraging due to dissatisfaction involving the issue of synthetic rubber in 1972-1974 as well as the unwelcoming response during Kakuei Tanaka’s visit to five ASEAN member countries in 1974. This article partly uses a primary source obtained from the National Archives of Malaysia which is a declassified documents prepared in December 1972 by officials from Malaysia’s main ministries on the threat of Japanese synthetic rubber. It is necessary to state that the approach taken by these bureaucrats is through a "softening up" measure instead of “hard-bargaining tactics” to find the best solution by proposing the ASEAN platform as a strategy for dealing with the Japanese government. This article provides a laconic view of the extent to which Japan’s relations with ASEAN encountered difficulties along the journey before arriving to the current phase. The relationship has reflected strong resilience and bond based on mutual interests and shared responsibility in promoting regional harmony and development.</p> Md Nasrudin Md Akhir Copyright (c) 2023 WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/45502 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0800 PERSEPSI WARGA UNIVERSITI MALAYA TERHADAP NASIHAT UNTUK ‘TIDAK IKUT SERTA’ DALAM SAMBUTAN BON ODORI DI MALAYSIA https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/45972 <p>This study focuses on the perception of University of Malaya community towards the advice given by religious minister and agencies to the muslim community to 'not participate' in the Bon Odori festival organized in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are divided into three which are to find out the Bon Odori festival according to the beliefs of the Japanese community, to identify the main factors caused the muslims in Malaysia to be advised not to participate in the Bon Odori and to evaluate the perception of Universiti Malaya community towards the advice given. The research method used is a quantitative. The researchers conducted a questionnaire survey on 200 University of Malaya communities. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The findings of this study were the respondents had different views on the advice received by muslims. However, the majority of Universiti Malaya community accepted the Bon Odori festival and they also felt that the advice given by the relegious authorithy to Muslims was appropriate. Ultimately, it is hoped that this study can help researchers and readers understand current issues, and understand the level of acceptance of a society towards the Bon Odori.</p> Nor Asyikin Jamaludin, Asmadi Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/45972 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0800 EVOLUTION OF JAPAN’S PACIFIST TO REALIST DIPLOMACY: FROM YOSHIDA SHIGERU TO FUMIO KISHIDA https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/46615 <p><em>The paper seeks to answer two questions. What are the newer security policies promoted by Japan and are they significant in empowering Tokyo to become an international security and foreign policy leader? In order to answer these questions, the paper examined the implementation of realism diplomacy through actions taken in the past as well as present. Findings suggests that for decades, the Yoshida Doctrine was the basis for Japan’s foreign policy when the state’s priority was economic prosperity and security. However, the severity of the current security environment surrounding Japan desperately needs a different set of foreign policies and diplomacy. The transformation started during Shinzo Abe’s administration which has now been continued by Fumio Kishida, albeit with slight changes here and there. Kishida’s values based realism policies are aimed at protecting Japan as well as transforming the state into a key global player and contributor in security issues. Strengthening defence capabilities, enhancing multilaterism and improving relations with neighbours have indeed transformed Japan into a more responsible, capable and respected global player. Having said that, Kishida does face numerous challenges internally in sustaining his policy priorities.</em></p> Geetha Govindasamy Copyright (c) 2023 WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/46615 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0800 ISU-ISU BERKAITAN EKONOMI GIG DI JEPUN: ANALISIS LAPORAN AKHBAR https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/46645 <p>The global COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the media landscape in Japan, as news coverage that previously focused on the preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics has shifted towards pandemic-related issues. Increased news reports on current pandemic-related issues, including those related to gig economy workers, have emerged. Social restrictions and the rise in online activities have driven the growth of the gig economy in Japan, which was initially needed to address the imbalance in talent supply and demand, along with a declining young population. However, a lack of legal oversight has led to various issues, ultimately resulting in the formation of labor unions demanding job justice for gig workers. Previous studies have been conducted on gig workers, such as labor injustices and proposals for regulating labor standards like collective bargaining, but there is still a lack of research exploring media reporting on the gig economy in Japan. Therefore, this study aims to identify current issues related to the gig economy in Japan, focusing on online food delivery platform workers through media coverage analysis. Data was collected from the online news archive of Asahi Shimbun from February 2021 to December 2022 using the search terms "gig economy" and "uber eats." The research findings were obtained through content analysis conducted with the assistance of Leximancer software. It was found that Asahi Shimbun's news reporting on the gig economy during the COVID-19 pandemic tended to be more negative in sentiment than positive. Negative sentiment emerged due to prominent reports of dissatisfaction among gig workers with the Uber Eats Japan food delivery service company, primarily stemming from changes in the delivery compensation system. This study is expected to contribute to the understanding of gig economy issues as portrayed in the media, serving as a guide for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and labor unions to improve the quality of gig work in Japan and globally.</p> Siti Aminah Omar, Rohayati Paidi, Fumitaka Furuoka Copyright (c) 2023 WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/46645 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0800 EDITORIAL NOTE https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/46659 Asmadi Hassan, Geetha Govindasamy Copyright (c) 2023 WILAYAH: The International Journal of East Asian Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/46659 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0800