Competing Roles of the National Language and English in Malaysia and the Philippines: Planning, Policy and Use (doi: 10.14425/00.45.77)

Main Article Content

Francisco Perlas Dumanig
Maya Khemlani David
Lorraine Pe Symaco


This paper examines the impact of language planning and language policy in the competing roles of the national language and English in the educational system of Malaysia and the Philippines. These countries have emphasised the national language (i.e. Malay in Malaysia and Filipino in the Philippines) to foster national unity, and the international language-English for global communication. Educational expansion as documented with globalisation has also repositioned the role of the English language. While English has become a necessary tool to increase competitiveness in the global market, calls to 'switch back' or 'retain' the national language to instil a sense of national unity has also been equally advocated. Although planning and policy may have specific objectives, these may not be reflected in actual language use. The findings of this study reveal the social reality of contrasting language planning and policy initiatives in Malaysia and the Philippines and the actual use of these languages.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details