Malaysian Journal of Science <p style="text-align: justify;">Malaysian Journal of Science (MJS) is the official peer-reviewed open-access journal of the <a href="">Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya</a>. Effective from the year 2020 onwards, the frequency of regular issues publication is three times a year. MJS is indexed in <a href="">Scopus</a>, <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Malaysian+Journal+of+Science&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>, <a href="">Chemical Abstracts Service Database</a>, <a href="">ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)</a>, and <a href="">MYCite</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">MJS is a reputable journal with a growing audience, which focuses on current developments in all disciplines of science. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, short communications, and case reports that are of importance to the scientific community. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>eISSN : 2600-8688<br /></strong><strong><strong>Print ISSN : 1394-3065<br /></strong></strong><strong><strong>Publisher : Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya</strong></strong> </p> Faculty of Science, University of Malaya en-US Malaysian Journal of Science 1394-3065 <p><strong>Transfer of Copyrights</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled <strong>[INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] </strong>in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em>, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conditions of Publication</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.</li> <li>This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.</li> <li>I agree to indemnify the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Reviewer’s Responsibilities</strong></p> <ul> <li>Reviewers must treat the manuscripts received for reviewing process as confidential. It must not be shown or discussed with others without the authorization from the editor of MJS.</li> <li>Reviewers assigned must not have conflicts of interest with respect to the original work, the authors of the article or the research funding.</li> <li>Reviewers should judge or evaluate the manuscripts objective as possible. The feedback from the reviewers should be express clearly with supporting arguments.</li> <li>If the assigned reviewer considers themselves not able to complete the review of the manuscript, they must communicate with the editor, so that the manuscript could be sent to another suitable reviewer.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:<br />(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy<strong>. <br /></strong>(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.</li> <li>As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br />You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong> Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>In the event of the manuscript to be published in the<em> Malaysian Journal of Science</em> contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.</li> <li>This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> </li> </ul> <p> </p> WHAT IS THE TRUE CARBON FRACTION VALUE OF MANGROVE BIOMASS? <p>Carbon stock in mangrove stands is estimated through the biomass approach multiplied by the value of the mangrove carbon fraction. Many researchers use the value of 47% as the carbon fraction value for all mangrove species which should be based on the actual carbon content value. The research was conducted using the literature review method using a database ScienceDirect and Google Scholar until 2022. The search strategy was carried out using keywords: mangrove biomass, mangrove carbon stock, organic carbon of mangrove, carbon fraction of mangrove biomass, and chemical composition of mangrove biomass. The results showed that the value of the carbon fraction with the approach of organic carbon content was 46.4% and lower than the value of the carbon fraction with the approach of compounds making up mangrove biomass, which was 46.82%. This value was contributed by carbohydrates at 26.20%, amino acids 2.97%, tannins 3.22%, lignins 3.38%, fatty acids 7.69%, triterpenoids 3.17%, and n-alkanes 0.19. %. The estimation of mangrove carbon stock in forests with homogeneous species can use the value of carbon fraction in each mangrove species, namely 46.3% for <em>B. gymnorrhiza</em>, 45.9% for <em>R.</em> <em>apiculata</em>, and 47.1% for <em>S.</em> <em>alba</em><em>. </em>Meanwhile , a carbon fraction value of 46.82% can be used for all true mangrove species to estimate the carbon stock in forests with heterogeneous mangrove species.</p> Rahman Maryono Oktavia Nurmawaty Sigiro Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 67 72 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.10 DETERMINATION OF URANIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN RICE SAMPLES AVAILABLE IN THE IRAQI MARKET USING THE CR-39 DETECTOR <p>&nbsp;In this study, the results of the uranium concentrations and specific activity in 10 rice samples are described using a solid-state track detector (CR-39). Samples were collected from various local Iraqi markets with different origins (Iraq, India, America, and Thailand). Our findings found that the results of uranium concentration in all studied samples are ranging from (0.55 ± 0.28 to 1.74 ± 0.31) ppm with a weighted average of (1.24 ± 0.99) ppm. Also, results demonstrate that the specific activity values of the studied samples swing between values of (6.88 ± 3.52 and 21.49 ± 3.85) Bq/Kg. The obtained results of the studied rice samples are indicated that it is less than the acceptable limit of those studies established by many organizations such as the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR), the international atomic energy agency (IAEA), the world health organization (WHO), and others.</p> Auday Al-Bayati Adawiya Alwan Hussein A. Miran Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 1 6 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF APPLICATIONS OF BETEL (Piper Betel Linn.) LEAF EXTRACT AND BACTERIOCIN FOR TEAT DIPPING DURING MILKING HANDLING IN INDONESIAN DAIRY FARMING <p>This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of teat dipping using sirih leaf extract (Piper betle) and bacteria in dairy farms located in Cijeruk Subdistrict, Bogor Regency, West Java. The research employs an experimental design utilizing a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments: (1) teat dipping with masofilm (2% iodine) as the positive control, (2) teat dipping with bacteriocin (protein content = 11.17 g mL-1) (P1), (3) teat dipping with betel leaf extract (25% concentration-based) (P2), and (4) teat dipping without any additional treatment, serving as the negative control. Each treatment is replicated three times. The observed parameters include the reduction in somatic cell count (SCC) and total plate count (TPC) in cow's milk. Data were collected through sampling from 12 cows and analyzed using milk quality analysis to assess the conditions of dairy farms in Cijeruk Subdistrict.</p> Iyep Komala Irma Isnafia Arief Afton Atabany Lucia Cyrilla ENSD Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 7 15 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.2 THE BENEFITS OF FERMENTED GOAT’S MILK WHEY MASK WITH HONEY AND RED FRUIT (Pandanus conoideus) AS ANTIOXIDANT AGENT <p>Goat’s milk fermented whey, honey, and red fruit extract can be used for making face masks because they can increase the effectiveness of mask. Whey has smaller fat globules so it helped nutrients absorbed better in to the skin, the honey and red fruit contain flavonoids and phenolics to keep skin moist, clean, and it also produced the antioxidant properties of fermented whey masks. This study aimed to determine the formulation of the fermented whey mask as well as its physical characteristics and antioxidant properties. Fermented whey masks were tested for their physical characteristic such as pH, water activity, spreading ability, drying time and antioxidant properties to see which formulation produced a mask with good test results. The study was tested using a completely randomized factorial design. Result showed that mask with addition of 10% honey had better physical characteristic such as pH, water activity, spreading ability, drying time and antioxidant activity than the addition of 5% honey. Results gained from this study were prospected to be developed into the shelf life stability and dermatologically because it has the potential to be developed commercially.</p> Yulia Yasmin Pratiwi Irma Isnafia Arief M.Sriduresta Soenarno Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 16 21 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.3 SLOW AND FAST SUBSYSTEMS FOR COMPLEX UNCOMPETITIVE INHIBITOR MECHANISMS <p>To fully understand intricate enzyme reaction models, one must explore beyond the confines of chemical and biological tools and look toward mathematical modeling and model reduction techniques. Mathematical modeling and model reduction techniques have the potential to provide a vast array of analysis tools for such models. This piece of work entails a review and discussion of a complex noncompetitive inhibitor model. This model is composed of seven non-linear differential equations with constant rates. We propose two efficient model reduction techniques: quasi- steady-state approximation (QSSA) and quasi-equilibrium approximation (QEA). By utilizing the suggested methods, the model equations are segregated into slow and fast subsystems, leading to the attainment of reduced models and slow manifolds with fewer variables and parameters. The outcomes manifest some analytical approximate solutions for the proposed model and establish a profound agreement between model dynamics for both the original and the reduced models. Observing that the reduced models can accurately identify certain critical model parameters is intriguing.</p> Honar Hamad Sarbaz Hamza Abdullah Khoshnaw Muhammad Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 22 32 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.4 SOLUTION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION vvi (u)=f(u,v,v',v'',v''') USING EIGHTH AND NINTH ORDER RUNGE-KUTTA TYPE METHOD <p>The present paper presents the numerical conclusion to solve sixth order initial value ordinary differential equation (ODE). The concept of order conditions for three stage eighth order (RKSD8) &amp; four stage ninth order Runge-Kutta methods (RKSD9) has been derived for finding global truncation error of differential equation The global and local truncated errors norms, zero stability of extended Runge-Kutta method (RK) is well defined and demonstrated with the help of an example.</p> Manpreet Kaur Sangeet Kumar Jasdev Bhatti Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 33 40 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.5 EVALUATION OF Zr, Ni-Cr, And Au-Ag APPLIED MATERIALS USING FEM ON PROSTHETIC CROWNS <p>The crown is a steady prosthesis designed to restore the functionality of a damaged tooth along, with its shape and size. They are also used to reinforce the tooth that poses long-term risk due to wide cavities and accidental injuries. The crowns are fixed using dental cement made of different materials such as porcelain cement, ceramics, etc. The present work aims to assess the mechanical properties – stiffness and strength, of the single molar crown prosthetic tooth materials to determine the efficacy of each material under typical masticatory load observed in clinical settings. To this end, the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the mechanical behavior of the molar crowns made of Zirconium (Zr), Nickel Chromium (Ni-Cr), and Gold alloy (Au-Ag). The crown models were created in Solidworks and exported to the ANSYS FE package. The exported three-dimensional models were subjected to varying loading conditions – vertical and oblique forces to the tooth axis under suitable displacement boundary conditions. Due to a relatively high elastic modulus, the Zr and Ni-Cr alloy exhibited a higher stress concentration and lower deformation on the crown’s intaglio surface compared to the Au-Ag alloy.</p> P Vicky Kumar Anil Kumar Birru Nelson Muthu Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 41 46 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.6 SPECTRAL AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOR SODIUM SILICATE-BASED AEROGEL VIA NORMAL DRYING PRESSURE <p>Five types of silica aerogel were prepared at ambient pressure: sodium silicate, TEOS, and sodium silicate, with TEOS utilized as precursors. We investigated the effects of catalysis, mixing water or ethanol with the precursors, as well as the procedure of modification. Aqueous is a low-cost alternative, and many applications utilize it. A manufacturing colloidal silicic acid hydrosol was created from the ion exchange of an industrial water glass. The properties of physical, chemical, and hydrophobicity were examined via density, XRD, FTIR, and contact angle. BET, FESEM, and EDS analysis determined the structural properties. The silica hydrogel's pore liquid (H<sub>2</sub>0) was successively removed. The spectral properties confirmed the modification by the derived high contact angle of 152º, low transparency, and amorphous structure. The resulting aerogel monoliths have a well-developed mesoporous structure, a large specific surface area of 961 m2/g, and a low density of 0.04 g/cm3.</p> Wasan H. Al-husseny Israa F. Al-Sharuee Ban R. Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 47 55 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.7 ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE ESTIMATION DUE TO THE NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN YAM TUBERS (Dioscorea rotundata) CULTIVATED IN NORTHCENTRAL NIGERIA <p>Yam tubers (<em>Dioscorea rotundata</em>) and soil from commercially cultivated farmland in northcentral Nigeria were collected and investigated for their natural radioactivity content using a 3” × 3” NaI(Tl) gamma detector. Average activities of <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K in the investigated farm soil were 38.13±3.76 Bq kg<sup>-1</sup>, 15.06±0.99 Bq kg<sup>-1</sup> and 381.80±15.50 Bq kg<sup>-1,</sup> respectively. The results agree with the world’s acceptable levels of safety. Activities measured in the yam tubers were in the range from BDL -76.68±9.73 Bq kg<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>238</sup>U, BDL - 19.77±1.30 Bq kg<sup>-1 </sup>for <sup>232</sup>Th and 312.50±20.73 - 627.94±38.37 Bq kg<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>40</sup>K, with average values of 29.23±4.0, 13.10±0.72 and 445.10±27.20 Bq kg<sup>-1,</sup> respectively. The total effective dose from radionuclide intake from yam ingestion fluctuated between 272.12 μSv y<sup>-1</sup> and 935.97 μSv y<sup>-1</sup>. Correlation analysis identified <sup>238</sup>U and <sup>232</sup>Th as the leading contributors to the total effective dose from ingesting yam tubers cultivated in northcentral Nigeria.</p> Matthew Tikpangi Kolo Oyeleke Ismail Olarinoye Simon Olonkwoh Salihu Hauwau Kulu Shuaibu Funmilayo Ayedun Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 56 61 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.8 THE STRUCTURE OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE TRAPS IN AQUEOUS GROWN KCl <p>The results of TL studies in aqueous grown undoped KCl crystals are reported. A de-convolution of TL curve into five component peaks has been performed and trap depths have been obtained. The importance of bi-vacancy has been established as a fundamental trap and its anion vacancy end has also been proposed as a suitable trap for thermoluminescence in KCl crystals. The traps at anion vacancies linked to impurity vacancy I-V pairs have also been envisaged and the shift in the depths of traps is attributed to the electric field of I-V pairs in the lattice caused by inherent divalent ions. Some traps linked to hydroxyl groups have also been identified.</p> Ruchi Pandey Rajendra Kumar Sumit Tiwari S. D. Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 62 66 10.22452/mjs.vol42no2.9