• Irfan Aditya Setyadji Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology Soegijapranata Catholic University Semarang
  • Lindayani Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology Soegijapranata Catholic University Semarang
  • Laksmi Hartajanie Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology Soegijapranata Catholic University Semarang


Piper betle, ultrasound-assisted extraction, yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity


Piper betle Linn. leaves extract contains phytochemicals with various therapeutic effects. While these phytochemicals are susceptible to degradation by extreme extraction conditions, novel extraction techniques enable the preservation of the phytochemicals and thus enabling recovery of higher quality phytochemical extract. This research aimed to study the effect of parameters of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) on the quality of phytochemicals, measured by total phenol content and antioxidant activity of Piper betle leaves extract. The parameters studied are sonication power (i.e., 50W, 70W, 90W), extraction time (i.e., 20, 25, 30 minutes), and temperature (i.e., 45oC, 50oC, 55oC). Ethanol of 96% concentration was used as solvent and the ultrasound bath was operated at 45 kHz. Response surface methodology is used to analyze the result of experiment. Sample testing were done by completely randomized design (CRD) and the result was statistically analyzed by using central composite design (CCD) to find the most optimal parameter combination towards total phenol content and antioxidant activity. The optimum parameters for UAE of Piper betle leave that gave the maximum amount of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity are as follows: temperature of 55oC, extraction time of 27.55 minutes, and sonication power of 73.04 Watt.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-farsi, M. A., & Lee, C. Y. (2008). Food Chemistry Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds. 108, 977–985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.009

Ali, A., Lim, X. Y., & Wahida, P. F. (2018). The fundamental study of antimicrobial activity of Piper betle extract in commercial toothpastes. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 14(June 2017), 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2018.08.001

Anastas, P. T., & Warner, J. C. (1998). Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press.

Armenta, S., Garrigues, S., & de la Guardia, M. (2015). The role of green extraction techniques in Green Analytical Chemistry. TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 71, 2–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2014.12.011

Ashokkumar, M. (2015). Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Applications of ultrasound in food and bioprocessing. Ultrasonics - Sonochemistry, 25, 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.08.012

Bahadur, S., & Hathan, S. (2017). Sorption behavior , thermodynamic properties and storage stability of ready-to-eat Elephant Foot Yam ( Amorphophallus spp .) product : physic-chemical properties , minerals , total dietary fiber and phenolic content of stored product. 11(2), 401–416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-016-9408-y

Bhattacharya, A., Sood, P., & Citovsky, V. (2010). The roles of plant phenolics in defence and communication during Agrobacterium and Rhizobium infection. 11, 705–719. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1364-3703.2010.00625.X

Brennen, C. E. (1995). Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chavan, Y., & Singhal, R. S. (2013). Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactives from arecanut (Areca catechu L.) and optimization study using response surface methodology. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 17, 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2012.10.001

Esclapez, M. D., Mulet, A., & Ca, J. A. (2011). Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products. 108–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-011-9036-6

Fischer, U. A., Carle, R., & Kammerer, D. R. (2013). Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate ( Punica granatum L .) juices and model solutions. Food Chemistry, 138(2–3), 1800–1809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.072

Holland, B., Agyei, D., Akanbi, T. O., Wang, B., & Barrow, C. J. (2017). Phenolic Compounds. In Food Biosynthesis. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811372-1/00005-1

Li, B. B., Smith, B., & Hossain, M. (2006). Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels II . Enzyme-assisted extraction method. 48, 189–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2005.07.019

Murata, K., Nakao, K., Hirata, N., Namba, K., Nomi, T., Kitamura, Y., … Matsuda, H. (2009). Hydroxychavicol: A potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle. Journal of Natural Medicines, 63, 355–359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-009-0331-y

Muruganandam, L., Krishna, A., Reddy, J., & Nirmala, G. S. (2017). Resource-Efficient Technologies Optimization studies on extraction of phytocomponents from betel leaves. Resource-Efficient Technologies, 3(4), 385–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reffit.2017.02.007

Pin, K. Y., Chuah, A. L., Rashih, A. A., Mazura, M. P., Fadzureena, J., & Vimala, S. (2010). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts of betel leaves ( Piper betle ) from solvents with different polarities Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Extracts of betel leaves ( Piper betle ) from solvents with different polarities. (August 2015).

Said, F., Amri, A., & Hossain, M. A. (2018). Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Comparison of total phenols , flavonoids and antioxidant potential of local and imported ripe bananas. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(4), 245–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbas.2018.09.002

Setyaningsih, W., Saputro, I. E., Carrera, C. A., & Palma, M. (2019). Optimisation of an ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of phenolics in rice grains. Food Chemistry, 288(January), 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.02.107

Sikora, E., & Borczak, B. (2014). Hydrothermal Processing on Phenols and Polyphenols in Vegetables. Polyphenols in Plants: Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation, 241–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397934-6.00013-9

Volf, I., Ignat, I., Neamtu, M., & Popa, V. I. (2013). Thermal stability , antioxidant activity , and photo-oxidation of natural polyphenols. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-013-0417-6

Vuong, Q. V, Nguyen, V. T., Trung, D., Jyoti, D., Goldsmith, C. D., Sadeqzadeh, E., … Bowyer, M. C. (2015). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for euphol from the medicinal plant , Euphorbia tirucalli , using response surface methodology. Industrial Crops & Products, 63, 197–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.09.057

Wahida, M. A. P. F., Chuah, A. L., Pin, K. Y., Law, C. L., & Choong, T. S. Y. (2012). Vacuum Drying Characteristics for Piper betle L. Leaves. Journal of Applied Sciences, 12(11), 1203–1206.

Wang, J., Sun, B., Cao, Y., Tian, Y., & Li, X. (2008). Food Chemistry Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. 106, 804–810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.062

Wang, S., Chen, F., Wu, J., Wang, Z., Liao, X., & Hu, X. (2007). Optimization of pectin extraction assisted by microwave from apple pomace using response surface methodology. 78, 693–700. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.008

Wang, Y., Liu, Y., & Hu, Y. (2014). Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from Trametes robiniophila and its antioxidant activities. Carbohydrate Polymers, 111, 324–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.03.083

Wen, C., Zhang, J., Zhang, H., Dzah, C. S., & Zandile, M. (2018). Ultrasonics - Sonochemistry Advances in ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from cash crops – A review. Ultrasonics - Sonochemistry, 48(May), 538–549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.07.018

Zhong, K., & Wang, Q. (2010). Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from dried longan pulp using response surface methodology. Carbohydrate Polymers, 80(1), 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.10.066