Relationship between Adequate Healthcare Facilities and Population Distribution in Melaka Using Spatial Statistics

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Rosilawati Zainol Hanan Elsawa


Healthcare facilities are required for all levels of a population regardless of age, race or socioeconomic status. Provision for healthcare facilities requires knowledge of population data and area for placement of healthcare facilities. The main objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between availabilities of healthcare facilities and population in districts in Melaka. This study is based on population data and distribution of healthcare facilities which were obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia and Malaysia Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU). Both types of data were converted into geographic information systems (GIS) data format using QuantumGIS. Then these data were analysed using two main methods using GeoDa and ArcGIS applications. First is by using a formula set by a global standard, ISO37120 to measure healthcare facilities adequacy. Secondly, spatial statistics, Bivariate Moran’s I was used to examine the relationship between population and healthcare facilities distribution. Local Moran’s I was used to examine the cluster of population distribution. Findings show the allocation of healthcare facilities is sufficient according to the Malaysian Community Facilities Guideline. A high-high cluster of the population is found in Melaka Tengah District. However, the relationship between the total population and number of public hospital in-patient beds are negatively correlated. Similar results are obtained for private clinics and pharmacy. This result shows higher population distribution has less number of public hospital inpatient beds, the number of private clinics and pharmacy. However, Bivariate Moran’s I analysis yields a different output for the public clinic. This result shows the high number of population distribution is positively correlated with a high number of public clinics. Thus, authorities, in this case, would be the Ministry of Health and Melaka state government should be aware of the current availability of healthcare facilities to its population in ensuring a high level of healthcare services provided in the state.


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ZAINOL, Rosilawati; ELSAWA, Hanan. Relationship between Adequate Healthcare Facilities and Population Distribution in Melaka Using Spatial Statistics. Journal of Design and Built Environment, [S.l.], p. 131-137, june 2018. ISSN 2232-1500. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 oct. 2020. doi: