Main Article Content
A lower external temperature increases comfort and reduces the chance of heat stress; it can be impacted by the density of the urban area, and this is an important issue for the residents in housing estate developments. Therefore, to sustainably reduce this issue, the external temperature is important to manage for urban public spaces’ development. This article reports the results of studies on increasing thermal comfort in public areas by adding different types of shading into computer programs, Rhinoceros and Grasshopper, to calculate the Universal Thermal Comfort Index (UTCI). Increasing the outdoor comfort can be done by adding shaded areas via large trees that can result in thermal reduction and humidity increase, but they do not obstruct air circulation. The result can be used as a guideline for the design of public spaces in housing estates to meet the outdoor comfort efficiently and support the users’ expectations.