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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission file is in Microsoft WORD.
  • Please provide:
    1. Full text of manuscript WITHOUT list of author(s) & affiliation
    2. Title page WITH author(s) name & affiliation
    3. Similarity report (e.g. results of turnitin)
  • The submission MUST USED AJBA's FORMAT & has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor). For the abstract , please prepared as 'structured abstract'.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
Guidelines for authors
1 Publication policies
AJBA requires authors to comply with AJBA's publication policies, i.e. papers submitted to AJBA
should be original work, i.e. the same paper must have not been published or accepted for publication in any other journals/books either in full or substantial part; and
the submission file is in Microsoft WORD.
It must not be submitted to any other journal for concurrent publication or being
considered for publication or even being reviewed.

2 Manuscript preparation
Manuscripts must comply with the following guidelines before entering the review process.
3 Language
Papers must be written in Standard British English. The language of the paper should be very comprehensible and moulded in proper syntax. Do not use any slang or jargon. Abbreviations and acronyms should be clearly defined when they are first introduced in the text.
4 English language editing
Authors are responsible for the linguistic accuracy of their manuscripts. Authors who are not fully conversant with the English language are highly encouraged to seek advice/assistance from subject specialists with a sound knowledge of English.
5 Length of paper
The preferred length of a paper is between 8,500 and 10,000 words inclusive of everything (Tables, Figures, References and Appendices).
6 Format
Manuscripts must be prepared using Microsoft Word, using Times New Roman as the font type. All paragraphs including footnotes and notes under each Table should be justified. The manuscript should be formatted in one column with Tables and Figures at the end. Leave a blank line between each paragraph, each entry in the reference section, and between each section or part. The line spacing is 1.15 for the whole manuscript except for Abstract of which it is 1.0.
7.1  Title page
The first page of the manuscript includes the title of the manuscript, the authors' specifications, the Abstract, the Keywords, and the JEL Classification.

Title: Brief, effective, and reflective of the manuscript; font size 14, bold and centralised, capitalise each content word in the title
Author(s): Full name(s), affiliation(s), e-mail and postal address(es) all in font size 12. For multiple authors, please indicate the corresponding author using an asterisk. Author affiliations, acknowledgements and information on research grants may be written in a footnote (indicated by superscript symbols, font size 10 on the title page. This footnote should not be part of the consecutive numbering of footnotes of the paper. See the following example:
Example: Rubi Ahmad*, Michael Skully and Mohammed Ariff
It appears in the footnote as follows:

* Corresponding author. Rubi Ahmad is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of
Business and Economics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, e-mail: rubi@um.edu.my.
Michael Skully is a Professor at the Department of Accounting and Finance,
Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, Victory 3145,
Australia, e-mail: Michael.Skully@BusEco.monash.edu.au.
Mohamed Ariff is Chair in Finance, Department of Finance, Bond University,
Queensland 4229, Australia, e-mail: mariff@bond.edu.au.

Abstract: Must be STRUCTURED ABSTRACT , Concise, informative, not more than 150 words, font size 11, the word abstract is bold, typed in font size 12. The abstract must includes the following sections:
  • manuscript type
  • research aims
  • design/methodology/approach
  • research findings
  • theoretical contribution/originality
  • practitioner/policy implications
  • research limitation
    Keywords: Not more than eight in alphabetical order; the word keywords should  be bold. Separate each key words by using a comma, capitalise each content  word in the keywords and do not close this part with a dot. See the following example:
        Keywords: Contrarian Investment Strategy, Losers, Overreaction Effect, Winners, Zero-Investment Portfolio

    JEL Classification: Provide the JEL Classification for your paper. JEL Classification is the code number for the area of research or manuscript (based on the Abstract). More particulars can be found through the Internet search engine. For example, the manuscript that focuses on Organizational Approach to Total Quality Management can be classified as M11.

    7.2 First page of the full manuscript. 
    The first page of the manuscript includes the title of the manuscript, WITHOUT authors' specifications . Add the Abstract, the Keywords, and the JEL Classification before the full text.
    Title: Brief, effective, and reflective of the manuscript; font size 14, bold and centralised, capitalise each content word in the title

    8 Tables and figures
 Tables and Figures should be presented in text.
9 Table format
Tables should be arranged in the following format:
Tables and figures submitted as image data are not accepted, for they cannot be edited for publication.
The first letter of each content word in the headings of the Tables should be capitalised typed in Times New Roman, font size 12 with single line spacing. A  brief Table Heading is preferred. Please do not present the headings in either bold or italic format.
Tables should be centralised, and the heading should be aligned to the left.
The contents of the Table should be in Times New Roman, font size 10, single spacing, and aligned to the left.
Table Notes which are presented right below the Tables should be typed in Times New Roman, font size 8, single spacing and aligned to the left.

10 Signs and numbers
Signs such as %, ˜&, etc. should not be used in the text. Instead you are to use per cent. Numbers in the text should be presented both in their mathematic forms. Numbers in decimals or in fractions are appropriate to appear in their original form as noted here: 22.3, 5.2, 8/10 and 3½.
11 Section headings
Section headings should be in bold, font size 12, aligned to the left, and numbered sequentially in Arabic numerals. First level subheadings should be in italics and bold, and the second level subheading should be in italics and not bold.

3. Methodology
3.1 Research design
3.1.1 Sampling
12 References
References should be listed at the end of the manuscript (before Tables and Figures), arranged alphabetically by the family name or the main name of the first author. For the same author, or for the same set of authors, references should be arranged chronologically. If there is more than one publication in the same year for the same author(s), the letters a, b, etc., should be added to the year and used for the in-text citation as well. References to the publications should strictly follow APA referencing style. In this section, there are a few illustrations. (Authors are required to consult a comprehensive APA manual to conform fully to the APA style.)

12.1 Authorship
12.1.1 Single author
In-Text citation
According to Pilloff (1996), the primary reason for the synergy is performance improvement after the merger, which may be obtained in several ways.

Reference list
Pilloff, S.J. (1996). Performance changes and shareholder wealth creation 
       associated with mergers of publicly traded banking institutions. Journal of
       Money, Credit and
Banking, 28, 294-310.
12.1.2 Two authors
In-Text Citation
Consistently, Linder and Crane (1992) offer some indication that interstate mergers do not improve operating income.

Reference list
Linda, C., & Crane, D. (1992). Bank merger: Integration and profitability. Journal of
       Financial Services Research
, 7, 35-55.

12.1.3 Three and more authors
Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

In-Text citation (first time)
Prior research by FDIC has suggested that CAMEL rating attributes have an important influence on a banks performance (Nuxoll, Keefe, & Samolyk, 2003).

Subsequent citations
CAMEL rating attributes have an important influence on a banks performance (Nuxoll et al., 2003).

Reference list
Nuxoll, D., Keefe, J., & Samolyk, K. (2003). Do local economic data improve
       off-site bank monitoring models? FDIC Banking Review,15(2), 35-55.

Note: An ampersand (&) is used to connect authors' names within brackets, but not when they appear as part of a sentence.

12.2 Types of Publication
12.2.1 Books
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1998). Multivariate Data
     Analysis. NJ: Prentice Hall.

12.2.2 Chapter in an edited book
Brown, S.A., Aarons, G.A., & Abrantes, A.M. (2001). Adolescent alcohol and drug
      abuse. In C.E. Walker & M.C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child 
(3rd ed., pp. 757-775). New York: Wiley.

12.2.3 Journals
Chenhall, R.H. (2005). Integrative strategic performance measurement system,
      strategic alignment of manufacturing, learning and strategic outcomes: An
      exploratory study. Accounting, Organization and Society, 30, 395-422.
12.2.4 Journals accessed from a journal database or website with digital object
              identifier (DOI) assigned

Mahoney, L., & Roberts, R.W. (2007). Corporate social performance, financial
     performance and institutional ownership in Canadian firms. Accounting Forum,
     31(3), 233-253.   

Note: A digital object identifier, DOI, is a permanent identifier given to an electronic document, regardless of whether the URL changes.
12.2.5 Journals accessed from a journal database or website without DOI
Awamleh, R., & Fernandes, C. (2005). Internet banking: An empirical investigation
     into the extent of adoption by banks and the determinants of customer
     satisfaction in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Internet Banking and
10(1), retrieved on 1 June 2009, from

12.2.6 Work discussed in a secondary source
In Text citation

In the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClellands work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:

In Seidenberg and McClellands study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), ...

Reference list
Give the secondary source in the reference list.
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud:
     Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological
, 100, 589-608.

12.2.7 Conference proceedings
Regularly published Conference Proceedings should be referenced as journals. Conference Proceedings that are published in a journal or as a chapter in an edited book, or as contribution to a symposium should be treated in the same way as a chapter in a book. However, for other types you can follow the following formats: Published conference proceedings
Hasmah Zanuddin, & Azizah Hamzah. (2007). International trade agreement of
      intellectual property rights (TRIPS), copyright issues & burden to enforce in
      Malaysia. In Choi K.Y. (Ed.), Korean studies in Southeast Asia: Strategic
      cooperation and development in research and education: Proceedings of the
      2nd International Conference of the Korean studies Association of Southeast
      Asia held on 29 January - 1 February 2007 at the University of Malaya, Kuala
(pp. 121-138). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya. Unpublished conference proceedings
Abdul Samad, M. F., & Zulkafli, A. H. (2005, April 14-15). An overview of corporate
      governance in Malaysia.
Paper presented at UM-FBA Asian Business Conference on
      Business Practices in the Digital Era, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

12.2.8 Theses
Taherizadeh, A. H. (2010). The key drivers of innovation in Malaysia. Unpublished
      master’s thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

12.2.9 Government document
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness
      (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing
13. Publication fee
A publication fee of USD250 will be charge upon paper acceptance.

Submission of Manuscripts

Any manuscript that does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before entering the review process.