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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

1. Prospective contributions must be clearly written using British English and should be of interest to a broad readership. Articles should be between 4,000 to 7,000 words. Suitability of length of articles is dependent on the subject matter and focus. Tables and figures should be clearly labelled.
2. All contribution must have a brief English and Malay abstract about 200 words, together with the Malay and English keywords not more than 10 words. It also required a list of bibliography. For the non-Malay writers, the journal will translate their abstract into Malay.
3. Submitted articles must be original work. Articles that have been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication by other journals of publications would not be considered. However, articles accepted in conference proceedings that have been revised, updated, and extended may be considered for review.
4. References should be noted with numbers 1., 2., 3. and typed and single-spaced, using Times New Roman font 12, and placed it below the text of the manuscript. The author must also provide the references in English if the manuscript written in Arabic language. The references should also follow the 16th Chicago Style.
5. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure that the English used has been thoroughly checked to ensure that there is no grammatical or spelling error. Authors who wish to refine the use of English in their manuscripts may like to consider engaging professional editing services. Any costs incurred in engaging such services are the sole responsibility of the author(s).
6. Manuscripts should be submitted by e-mail in either *.docx or *.doc (MS Word Document format) to OJS. Contact information should include mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address.
7. Review of the manuscript is carried out as swiftly as possible. Once a decision for publication, whether accepted or rejected, is made, the corresponding author is notified by e-mail.
8. All conflicts of interest must be declared by all prospective contributors in the Acknowledgement section of the article. Conflicts of interest include any personal or professional affiliation, any financial interests, and/or any past, present or anticipated activities that may compromise the quality or objectivity of the manuscript. Therefore, we would like to invite and encourage students and lecturers to submit their manuscripts to this journal.