ANALISIS KONSEP KEPATUHAN BERAGAMA DARIPADA PERSPEKTIF ISLAM

Main Article Content

Azra Qistina Abdul Azis
Mohd Rizal Muwazir

Abstract

Kepatuhan beragama merupakan salah satu pembolehubah yang boleh mempengaruhi tingkah laku seseorang dalam membuat keputusan pengurusan. Kepentingan tersebut menyebabkan terdapat pelbagai instrumen dibangunkan di serata dunia bagi mengukurnya. Namun, ia ternyata belum cukup memandangkan sehingga kini hanya terdapat beberapa instrument yang benar-benar relevan untuk mengukur kepatuhan beragama daripada perspektif Islam. Perbezaan fahaman agama dan kebudayaan antara punca utama sebahagian skala tersebut ditolak terutamanya jika ia berfokuskan agama Kristian. Adapun, ada yang beranggapan pemansuhan item bersifat “gender-specific” (seperti model El-Menouar, 2014) dianggap sesuai dijadikan pengukur kepatuhan beragama Islam. Namun ia dilihat kurang mengambil kira aspek amalan sunah dalam Islam. Berbeza dengan model El-Menouar yang terdiri daripada: “basic religiosity”, “central duties”, “religious experience”, “religious knowledge” dan “orthopraxy”, kajian ini menggunakan istilah yang lebih menyeluruh berdasarkan Syariah Islam di mana Quran dan Hadis dijadikan sebagai sandaran utama. Demikian, dimensi “al-taqarrub”, “al-ibadah”, “al-ma’rifah”, “al-muraqabah” dan “al-halal” diperkenalkan sebagai konsep kepatuhan beragama menurut perspektif Islam.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Islamic Accounting

References

Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2010). Quality of Life, Subjective Well-being, and Religiosity in Muslim College Students. Quality of Life Research, 19(8), pp. 1133–1143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9676-7.
Achour, M., Grine, F., Nor, M. R. M., & Yusoff, M. Y. Z. M. (2015). Measuring Religiosity and Its Effects on Personal Well-Being: A Case Study of Muslim Female Academicians in Malaysia. Journal of Religion and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-014-9852-0.
Alam, S. S., Mohd, R., & Hisham, B. (2011). Is Religiosity an Important Determinant on Muslim Consumer Behaviour in Malaysia? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(1), pp. 83–96. https://doi.org/10.1108/17590831111115268
Albehairi, A., & Demerdash, A. (1988). Religious Orientation Scale. 2nd Edition. Cairo, Egypt.
Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), pp. 432–443. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021212.
AlMarri, T. S. K., Oei, T. P. S., & Al-Adawi, S. (2009). The development of the Short Muslim Practice and Belief Scale. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 12(5), pp. 415–426. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670802637643.
Amaliah, I., Aspiranti, T., & Purnamasari, P. (2015). The Impact of the Values of Islamic Religiosity to Islamic Job Satisfaction in Tasikmalaya West Java, Indonesia, Industrial Centre. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, pp. 984–991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.131.
Arli, D. (2017). Does Ethics Need Religion? Evaluating the Importance of Religiosity in Consumer Ethics. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 35(2), pp. 205–221. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-06-2016-0096.
Barhem, B., Younies, H., & Muhamad, R. (2009). Religiosity and Work Stress Coping Behavior of Muslim Employees. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 2(2), pp. 123–137. https://doi.org/10.1108/17537980910960690.
Cook, K. V., Kimball, C. N., Leonard, K. C., & Boyatzis, C. J. (2014). The Complexity of Quest in Emerging Adults’ Religiosity, Well-Being, and Identity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 53(1), pp. 73–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12086.
Delener, N. (1994). Religious Contrasts in Consumer Decision Behaviour Patterns: Their Dimensions and Marketing Implications. European Journal of Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569410062023
Durkheim, E. (1954). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. The Free Press, London.
Durlauf, S. N., Kourtellos, A., & Tan, C. M. (2012). Is God in the Details? A Reexamination of the Role of Religion in Economic Growth. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 27(7), pp. 1059–1075. https://doi.org/10.1002/jae.1245
El-Menouar, Y. (2014). The Five Dimensions of Muslim Religiosity. Results of an Empirical Study. Method, Data, Analyses, 8(1), pp. 53–78. https://doi.org/10.12758/mda.2014.003
Geaves, R. (2001). Religious Experience in Islam. Religious Experience Research Centre (RERC) Second Series Occasional Papers.
Genia, V. (1993). A Psychometric Evaluation of the Allport-Ross I/E Scales in a Religiously Heterogeneous Sample. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 32(3), pp. 284–290. https://doi.org/10.2307/1386667
Idris, K. M., Bidin, Z., & Saad, R. A. J. (2012). Islamic Religiosity Measurement and Its Relationship with Business Income Zakat Compliance Behavior. Jurnal Pengurusan, 34, pp. 3–10. https://doi.org/10.17576/pengurusan-2012-34-01
Jana-Masri, A., & Priester, P. E. (2007). The Development and Validation of a Qur’an-Based Instrument to Assess Islamic Religiosity: The Religiosity of Islam Scale. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 2(2), pp. 177–188. https://doi.org/10.1080/15564900701624436
Jasmi, K. A. (2017). Muraqabah. In Ensiklopedia Pendidikan Islam (Jasmi, Kamarul Azmi [ed.]). (Edisi Kedu, pp. 134–136). Skudai Johor: Fakulti Tamadun Islam dan Persatuan Cendekiawan Pendidikan Islam [AIES] (Malaysia).
Johnson, B. R., Jang, S. J., Larson, D. B., & Li, S. D. (2001). Does Adolescent Religious Commitment Matter? A Re-examination of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(1), pp. 22–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427801038001002
Karami, M., Olfati, O., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2014). Influence of Religiosity on Retail Salespeople’s Ethical Perceptions: The Case in Iran. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 5(1), pp. 144–172. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-12-2012-0068
Kashif, M., Zarkada, A., & Thurasamy, R. (2017). The Moderating Effect of Religiosity on Ethical Behavioural Intentions: An Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour to Pakistani Bank Employees. Personnel Review, 46(2), pp. 429–448. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-10-2015-0256
Khraim, H. S. (2010). Measuring Religiosity in Consumer Research From an Islamic Perspective. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 2(2), pp. 166–179. https://doi.org/10.1108/10264116201000003
Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Hood, R. W. (1990). Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religious Orientation: The Boon or Bane of Contemporary Psychology of Religion? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29(4), p. 442. https://doi.org/10.2307/1387311
Krauss, S. E., Hamzah, A., Suandi, T., Mohd Noah, S., Mastor, K. A., Juhari, R., … Manap, J. (2005). The Muslim Religiosity-Personality Measurement Inventory (MRPI)’s Religiosity Measurement Model: Towards Filling the Gaps in Religiosity Research on Muslims. Pertanika JournalSocial Science and Humanities, 13(2), pp. 131–145.
Lau, T. C. (2010). Towards Socially Responsible Consumption: An Evaluation of Religiosity and Money Ethics. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 1(1), pp. 32–35. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJTEF.2010.V1.6
Laurin, K., & Plaks, J. E. (2014). Religion and Punishment: Opposing Influences of Orthopraxy and Orthodoxy on Reactions to Unintentional Acts. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(7), pp. 835–843. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550614534698
Mouza, A. M., & Stamkopoulos, G. T. (2018). The Dimensions of Religious Commitment in Orthodox Christianity. International Journal of Humanities, Religion and Social Science, 2(9), pp. 71–79.
Muhamad, R. (2009). Religiosity, Ethical Judgments and Malaysian Muslim Students. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 4(1), pp. 53–67. https://doi.org/10.15209/jbsge.v4i1.154.
Muhamad, Rusnah, & Wan Hussin, W. S. (2004). The Influence of Religiosity and Perceptions of Unethical Business Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Malaysian Muslims. In The Second Conference On Administrative Science, pp. 1–12.
Osman-Gani, A. M., Hashim, J., & Ismail, Y. (2013). Establishing Linkages between Religiosity and Spirituality on Employee Performance. Employee Relations, 35(4), 360–376. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-04-2012-0030.
Othman, R., & Hariri, H. (2012). Conceptualizing Religiosity Influence on Whistle-Blowing Intentions. British Journal of Economics Finance and Management Sciences, 62(61), pp. 62–92.
Othman, Y., & Mohamed Fisol, W. N. (2017). Islamic Religiosity, Attitude and Moral Obligation on Intention of Income Zakat Compliance: Evidence from Public Educators in Kedah. Journal of Academic Research in Business …, 7(2), 726–737. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2680
Patwardhan, A. M., Keith, M. E., & Vitell, S. J. (2012). Religiosity, Attitude Toward Business, and Ethical Beliefs: Hispanic Consumers in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(1), 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1147-8
Paxton, P., Reith, N. E., & Glanville, J. L. (2014). Volunteering and the Dimensions of Religiosity: A Cross-National Analysis. Review of Religious Research, 56(4), 597–625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13644-014-0169-y
Pearce, L. D., Hayward, G. M., & Pearlman, J. A. (2017). Measuring Five Dimensions of Religiosity Across Adolescence. Review of Religious Research, 59(3), 367–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13644-017-0291-8
PPZMAIWP. (2020). Jenis-jenis Zakat: Zakat Pendapatan. Retrieved from https://www.zakat.com.my/info-zakat/jenis-jenis-zakat/zakat-pendapatan/
Rulindo, R., & Mardhatillah, A. (2011). Spirituality , Religiosity and Economic Performances of Muslim Micro- Entrepreneurs. In 8th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Finance. Center for Islamic Economics and Finance, Qatar Faculty of Islamics Studies, Qatar Foundation (pp. 1–13). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.03.069
Saat, M., Porter, S., & Woodbine, G. (2016). Does Religiosity Influence Ethical Sensitivity? An Investigation on Malaysian Future Accountants. Malaysian Accounting Review, 8(2).
Sharma, R. R., Newaz, F. T., & Fam, K. S. (2017). Muslim religiosity, Generational Cohorts and Buying Behaviour of Islamic Financial Products. Australian Journal of Management, 42(3), 482–501. https://doi.org/10.1177/0312896216659530
Singhapakdi, A., Vitell, S. J., Lee, D. J., Nisius, A. M., & Yu, G. B. (2013). The Influence of Love of Money and Religiosity on Ethical Decision-Making in Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(1), 183–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1334-2
Stratta, P., Capanna, C., Riccardi, I., Perugi, G., Toni, C., Dell’Osso, L., & Rossi, A. (2013). Spirituality and Religiosity in the Aftermath of a Natural Catastrophe in Italy. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 1029–1037. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-012-9591-z
Tabassi, S., Esmaeilzadeh, P., & Sambasivan, M. (2012). The Role of Animosity, Religiosity and Ethnocentrism on Consumer Purchase Intention: A Study in Malaysia toward European Brands. African Journal of Business Management, 6(23), 6890–6902. https://doi.org/10.5897/ajbm11.2867
Tu, Q., Bulte, E., & Tan, S. (2011). Religiosity and Economic Performance: Micro-Econometric Evidence from Tibetan Area. China Economic Review, 22(1), 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2010.09.008
Ul-Haq, S., Butt, I., Ahmed, Z., & Al-Said, F. T. (2019). Scale of Religiosity for Muslims: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Islamic Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-03-2016-0018
Usman, H. (2016). Islamic Religiosity Scale, and Its Applied on the Relationship between Religiosity and Selection of Islamic Bank. Journal of Distribution Science, 14(2), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.15722/JDS.14.2.201602.23
Uysal, A., & Okumuş, A. (2019). Impact of Religiosity on Ethical Judgement: A Study on Preference of Retail Stores among Consumers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 10(4), 1332–1350. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-07-2018-0131
Wan Ahmad, W. M., Ab Rahman, A., Che Seman, A., & Ali, N. A. (2008). Religiosity and banking selection criteria among Malays in Lembah Klang. Jurnal Syariah, 16(2), 99–130.
Weaver, G. R., & Agle, B. R. (2002). Religiosity and Ethical Behavior in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 77–97. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2002.5922390
Wening, N., & Choerudin, A. (2015). The Influence of Religiosity towards Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Personal Performance. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 11(2), 181–191.
Yeniaras, V., & Akarsu, T. N. (2017). Religiosity and Life Satisfaction: A Multi-dimensional Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(6), 1815–1840. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9803-4
Zainudin, R., Mahdzan, N. S., Che Hashim, R., & Sulaiman, N. A. (2019). Islamic Religiosity and Islamic Financial Asset Holdings (IFAH). Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 10(4), 591–606. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIABR-04-2016-0052