隋代苏元朗内外丹修炼法及其成就 The Achievement of Su Yuan-lang’s Inner and Outer Dan Practice in the Sui Dynasty
The mainstream of meditation (冥思静坐) and cultivate spirit (修仙) methods in the period of Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties (南北朝) was Cun Shou Shen Shen (存守身神, inner visualize and guard body spirit) of Shang Qing Pai (上清派, Shang Qing faction ). In addition, methods of Shang Qing Pai’s inhaling
and eating essence qi of sun, moon, and stars (Yu Yi 郁仪, Jie Lin 结璘and Ben Chen 奔辰) and methods of Ling Boa Pai’s (灵宝派) inhaling and eating essence qi released from five direction of Sky (Wu Ya 五芽法 ) were also prevalent at that time. As for the inner Dan (內丹) training method “Kan Li Jiao Gou” (坎离交媾, interaction between water and fire) mentioned in the book of Zhou Yi Can Tong Qi (周易参同契) of Han dynasty, the practitioner less. The book “Tai
Shang San Shi Liu Bu Zun Jing, Huang Ting Jing (太上三十六部尊 经·黃庭经) ” is the important Taoism scripture of inner Dan at this time. But, according to the statement “improve inner Dan by using the strength of outer Dan” of Hui Si (慧思, the master of Zen, 515-577 ) in the vows “Nan Yue Si Da Chan Si Li Shi Yuan Wen (南狱思大禅师立誓愿文)”, inner Dan’s cultivation had affected Buddhist mages in the late stage of Southern and Northern dynasties, then the practice of inner Dan’s practice seems to have been valued again by the cultivators . At the beginning of the Sui Dynasty, Su Yuan-lang (苏元朗) deeply studied the book of Zhou Yi Can Tong Qi and had reports on Kan Li Jiao Gou of inner Dan and Wei Dan Ba Shi Shao Lian (外丹八石烧炼) of outer Dan. He also affected by the book “Tai Shang San Shi Liu Bu Zun Jing, Huang Ting Jing” of Southern and Northern dynasties which divided human’s living ability into three parts as energy, qi and spirit (jing, qi, shen 精气神). Inner and outer Dan both in the Sui and Tang dynasties were the mainstream of cultivation.
Keywords: Su Yuan-lang, meditation, inner Dan, Kan Li, lead and mercury