Sino-Turkish Relations from the Pre-Modern Era to the Present

Main Article Content

Esin Yurdagul

Abstract

In the early 21st century, relations between People’s Republic of China
and the Republic of Turkey were not a point of focus for international observers,
but now one can observe a dramatic change in perception has. Multidimensional
Sino-Turkish relations dates back as far as to the pre-modern era. This study
attempts at filling the gap on multidimensional Sino-Turkish relations in official,
diplomatic, military, economy and culture, political, and religious level from the
pre-modern era to the present through a historical perspective narrative.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yurdagul, E. (2022). Sino-Turkish Relations from the Pre-Modern Era to the Present. WILAYAH : The International Journal of East Asian Studies, 11(1), 112–130. Retrieved from https://ejournal.um.edu.my/index.php/IJEAS/article/view/30429
Section
Articles

References

Altay, Kuzzat, “Why Erdogan has Abandoned the Uyghurs,” Foreign Policy, 2 March 2021, https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/03/02/why-erdogan-has-abandoned-the-uyghurs

Alemdaroglu, Ayca and Sultan Tape, “Erdogan is Turning Turkey into a Chinese Client State,” Foreign Policy, 16 September 2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/09/16/erdogan-is-turning-turkey-into-a-chinese-client-state/

Ali Bakir, “What an Iran-China Pact Means for Turkey,” TRT World, 18 August 2020, https://www.trtworld.com/opinion/what-an-iran-china-pact-means-for-turkey-38903

Berlie, Jean A., ed., China’s Globalization and the Belt and Road Initiative, (New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).

Berman, Ilan, “Erdogan’s Chinese Gamble: Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is Betting Big on China,” The Diplomat, 4 October 2019, https://thediplomat.com/2019/10/erdogans-chinese-gamble/

Bilener, Tolga, “Turkey-China Relations: Ambitions and Limits of the Economic Cooperation,” IFRI: French Institute of International Relations, 5 October 2020, https://www.ifri.org/en/publications/notes-de-lifri/asie-visions/turkey-china-relations-ambitions-and-limits-economic

Blakemore, Erin, “What is Colonialism?,” National Geographic, 20 February 2019, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/article/colonialism

Borell, Joseph, “The Way Ahead After a Difficult 2020 For EU-Turkey Relations,” European Union External Action Services, 18 December 2020, https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/90861/way-ahead-after-difficult-2020-eu-turkey-relations-%C2%A0_en

Bostock, Bill, “Turkey is Accused of Extraditing Uighur Muslims to China in Exchange for COVID-19 Vaccine,” Business Insider, 16 January 2021, https://www.businessinsider.com/turkey-accused-of-extraditing-uighur-muslims-for-china-coronavirus-vaccine-2021-1

Cagaptay, Soner, “Turkey’s Imperial Foreign Policy: Vision vs. Reality,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 6 March 2020, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/turkeys-imperial-foreign-policy-vision-vs-reality.

Cagaptay, Soner, “Will Turkey and China Become Friends?,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 14 August 2019, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/will-turkey-and-china-become-friends

Caryl, Christian, Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century, (London, Basic Books, 2014).

Christoph Nedopil, “Countries of the belt and Road Initiatives,” Green Belt and Road Initiative Center, 5 January 2021, https://green-bri.org/countries-of-the-belt-and-road-initiative-bri/?cookie-state-change=1632030431268

Chao-Fong, Léonie, ‘The 13 Dynasties that Ruled China in Order,” Historyhit, 1 September 2020, https://www.historyhit.com/the-dynasties-that-ruled-china-in-order/

Chaziza, Mordechai, “Sino-Turkish ‘Solid Strategic Partnership’: China’s Dream or a Reality?,” China Report 52, no. 4, (2016): 265-283.

Chen, Maggie Xiaoyang and Lin, Chuanhao, “Foreign Investment Across the Belt and Road: Patterns, Determinants and Effects,” World Bank Group, October 2018, https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/30577

Cheek, Timothy, Mao Zedong China’s Revolution: A Brief History with Documents, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).

Chen, Yuan Julian, “Between Two Universal Empires: Ottoman-China Connections in the Sixteenth Century,” Yale InterAsia Connections Conference: Alternative Asias, 2016, https://www.academia.edu/32028698

“China, Turkey to Establish Strategic Cooperative Relationship,” China Daily, 8 October 2010, https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-10/08/content_11386689.htm

Chu, Yin-wah and So, Alvin Y., “State Neoliberalism: The Chinese Road to capitalism,” inYin-wah Chu, ed., Chinese Capitalisms: Historical Emergence and Political Implications, (London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 46-72.

Cieciura, Wlodzimierz, “The Crescent and the Red Star: Hui Muslims and Chinese Communism,” Ročník 6, no. 1, (2014): 6-21. Selçuk Çolakoğlu, Turkey and China: Political, Economic and Strategic Aspects of the Relationship, (Singapore, World Scientific, 2021).

Çolakoğlu, Selcuk, Turkey and China: Political, Economic and Strategic Aspects of the Relationship, (Singapore, World Scientific, 2021).

Craig-Harris, Lillian, China Consider the Middle East, (London, Bloomsbury Academic, 1993).

Cucchisi. Jennifer Lynn, “The Causes and Effects of the Chinese Civil War, 1927-1949,” (Master Thesis, Seton Hall University, 2002).

Cucchisi. Jennifer Lynn, “Turkish Foreign Policy and Strategic Partnership in Asia Pacific,” (Master Thesis, Middle East Technical University, 2019).

Degang, Sun, “China’s Soft Military Presence in the Middle East,” King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, January 2018, http://www.kfcris.com/pdf/07b46fba22562acf20bb92fb68f5ea5c5aaa11036d535.pdf

Demirci, Zuhal, “Turkish, Chinese Ties to Deepen Further: Envoy,” Anadolu Agency (AA), 16 January 2021, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/turkey/turkish-chinese-ties-to-deepen-further-envoy/2112406

Doerfer, Gerhard “Die Türken Mittler Kultureller und Sprachlicher Strömungen in Eurasien [The Turks’ Middle Cultural and linguistic Streams in Eurasia],” Politik und Wirtschaft 7, no. 2-3, (1966); 24-32.

European Union, “Key Findings of the 2020 Report on Turkey – Admission Status and Progress,” EU Comission, 6 October 2020, file:///Users/mdazman/Downloads/Key_findings_of_the_2020_Report_on_Turkey.pdf

Feng, John, “The Rise of China: How Communist Party Transformed Country Into a Superpower,” Newsweek, 7 January 2021, https://www.newsweek.com/rise-china-how-communist-party-transformed-country-superpower-1605497

Feng, Xingyuan, li, Weisen and Osborne, Evan W., “Classical Liberalism in China: Some History and Prospects,” Econ Journal Watch 14, no. 2, (2017): 218-240.

Fidan, Giray, “Sino-Turkish Relations: An Overview,” Middle East Institute (MEI), 4 October 2013, https://www.mei.edu/publications/sino-turkish-relations-overview

Finley, Jo Smith, “Islam in China,” Oxford Bibliographies, 30 November 2015, https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199920082/obo-9780199920082-0121.xml

Friedberg, Aron L., The Authoritarian Challenge: China, Russia, and the Threat to the Liberal International Order, (Tokyo, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation, 2018).

Fulton, Jonathan, “China’s Changing Role in the Middle East,” Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East - Atlantic Council Policy, 5 June 2019, https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/china-s-changing-role-in-the-middle-east-2/

Fulton, Jonathan, China’s Relations with the Gulf Monarchies, (London, Routledge, 2019).

Gunner, Jennifer, “Historical Eras: List of Major Time Periods in History,” Yourdictionary, 12 Jul 2021, https://examples.yourdictionary.com/historical-eras-list-of-major-time-periods-in-history.html

He Yini, “China to Invest $900b in Belt and Road Initiative,” China Daily, 28 May 2015, https://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2015-05/28/content_20845687.htm

Metin Heper, “Kemalism/Ataturkism,” in Metin Heper and Sabri Sayari, eds., The Routledge Handbook of Modern Turkey, (London, Routledge, 2017): 139-148.

Nolan, E.H., ‘Two-fced: Translations of a portrait of Abdülhamid II,’ In E.M., Troelenberg, K., Schankweiler, & A.S., Messner, Reading objects in the contact zone, Heidelberg Studies on Transculturality, 9, Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, pp: 35-41. 2021.

Hoberman, Barry, “The Battle of Talas,” Saudi Aramco World 33, no. 5, (1982): 26-31.

Honghui, Pan, “Prospects for Sino-Turkish Relations,” China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies 2, no. 1, (2016): 101-117.

Honghui, Pan, “Prospects for Sino-Turkish Relations: Unlikely Partnership or Uncertain Complex?,” China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies 2, no. 1, (2016): 101-117.

Idon, Paul, “How China is Heavily Contributing to Middle East Drone and Missile Proliferation,” Al Araby: The New Arab, 4 July 2019, https://english.alaraby.co.uk/analysis/china-heavily-contributing-middle-east-drone-proliferation

Karpat, Kemal H., The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity, State, Faith, and Community in the Late Ottoman State, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001).

Resat Kasaba, “Open-Door Treaties: China and the Ottoman Empire Compared,” New Perspectives on Turkey 7, (1992): 71-89.

Kayali, Hasan, “The Young Turks and the Committee of Union and Progress,” The Routledge Handbook of Modern Turkey, (London, Routledge, 2017): 26-34.

Kenneth-Warren, Chase, Firearms: A Global History to 1700, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Klepek, Jakub, “Contemporary China-Turkey Relations,” Institute of New Europe, 22 January 2020, https://ine.org.pl/en/contemporary-china-turkey-relations/

Klimeš, Ondřej, “China’s Xinjiang Propaganda and United Front Work in Turkey: Actors and Content,” Revue Monde Chinois 62, no. 2, (2020): 44-71.

Klimeš, Ondrej, “The Xinjiang Crisis and Sino-Turkish Relations during the Pandemic: Part one,” China Brief 2, no. 4, (2021): 13-18.

Kozhabekova, Zhanar, “Turkic Kaganate and China by Sources and the Latest Archaeological Research,” Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences 82, (2013): 117-121.

Lau, Hilary and Sun, Monica, “China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Projects Pave the Way,” Herbert Smith Freehills, 24 January 2018, https://www.herbertsmithfreehills.com/latest-thinking/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-projects-pave-the-way

Lavi, Galia and Lindenstrauss, Gallia, “China and Turkey: Closer Relations Mixed with Suspicion,” Strategic Assessment 19, no. 2, (2016): 119-127.

Lirong, Ma, “Sino-Turkish Cultural Ties under the Framework of Silk Road Strategy,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 8, no. 2, (2014): 44-65.

Lei, Wan, “The Chinese Islamic “Goodwill mission to the Middle East” During the Anti-Japanese War,” Divan: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 29, no. 2, (2010): 133-170.

Lons, Camile, Jonathan Fulton, Degang Sun and Naser Al-Tamimi, “China’s Great Game in the Middle East,” European Council on Foreign Relations, 21 October 2019, https://ecfr.eu/publication/china_great_game_middle_east/

Mashino, Ito, “Future of the Middle East Caught between US-China and US-Russia Rivalry,” Mitsui & Co. Global Strategic Studies Institute Monthly Report, 23 September 2020, https://www.mitsui.com/mgssi/en/report/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2020/09/24/2008e_mashino_e.pdf

Mao, Yufeng, “A Muslim Vision for the Chinese Nation: Pilgrimage Missions to Mecca during World War 11,” The Journal of Asian Studies 70, no. 2, (2011): 373-395.

Mao Zedong, “The Problem of the Minority Nationalities,” in Mao Zedong, ed., Selected Works of Mao Zedong (Volume 3), (Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1975): 255-256.

Mao Zedong, “The Question of Democracy,” in Mao Zedong, ed., Selected Works of Mao Zedong (Volume 1), (Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1975): 288-289.

Millet Allan R., “Allied Forces in the Korean War,” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/event/Korean-War.

Mohammed A Salih, “Internal Cultural Imperialism: The Case of the Kurds in Turkey,” International Communication Gazette, (2020): doi:10.1177/1748048520928666

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Trade between Turkey and China, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2021.

Oxford Business Group, The Report: Turkey 2015, Oxford Business Group, 9 September 2015, https://oxfordbusinessgroup.com/turkey-2015

People’s Republic of China, “Sino-Turkish Relations: An Article by Ambassador Mr. Yao Kuangyi,” Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of Turkey,7 January 2020, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-china.en.mfa

Republic of Turkey, Relations between Turkey and China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 5 January 2021, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-china.en.mfa

Republic of Turkey, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 5 January 2021, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/shanghai-cooperation-organization.en.mfa

Republic of Turkey, Turkey’s Multilateral Transportation Policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 January 2021, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey_s-multilateral-transportation-policy.en.mfa

Rubin, Barry, “China’s Middle East Strategy,” China Report 34, no. 3-4, (1998): 345-353.

Rubin, Michael, “Turkey is an Imperialist State: Don’t Let Erdogan Pretend Otherwise,” Newsweek, 29 July 2021, https://www.aei.org/op-eds/turkey-is-an-imperialist-state-dont-let-erdogan-pretend-otherwise/

Sigmond, George Gabriel, “Tea and China’s Rise: Tea, Nationalism and Culture in the 21st century,” International Communication of Chinese Culture 2, no. 3, (2015): 319-341.

Sigmond, George Gabriel, Tea: Its Effects, Medicinal and Moral, (London: Wentworth Press, 2019).

Scobell, Andrew and Alizera Nader, “China in the Middle East: The Wary Dragon,” RAND Corporation, 5 December 2016, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1229.html

Stalin, Joseph V., “Speech to the Chinese Students in Zhongshan University,” in Joseph V. Stalin, ed., J. V. Stalin: Works, Volume 1-13, (Moscow, Foreign Language Publishing House, 1952): 217-224.

Stoffey, David, Lessons from History: The Han-Xiongnu War and Modern China,” Small Wars Journal, 25 July 2017, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/lessons-from-history-the-han-xiongnu-war-and-modern-china

Swaine, Michael D., “Chinese Views and Commentary on the ‘One Belt, One Road’ Initiative,” Hoover Institution: China Leadership Monitor 47, no. 2 (2015): 1-24.

Taylor, Adam, “U.S. Ally Turkey May Have a New Best Friend in Beijing,” The Washington Post, 16 May 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/05/16/u-s-ally-turkey-may-have-a-new-best-friend-in-beijing/

Trading Economics, “Turkey Imports from China,” United Nations Commerce Trade Database and Statistics, 19 September 2021, https://tradingeconomics.com/turkey/imports/china

Trevor, Getz and Streets-Salter, Heather, Modern Imperialism and Colonialism: A Global Perspective, (New York, Pearson, 2010).

Turner, B., & Black, D., ‘New imperialism vs. old imperialism,’ Fivebale, 2020.

Uysal, Gonenc, “Turkey Dos Imperialism: Turkish Foreign Policy in the Middle East,” Open Democracy, 12 August 2019, https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/oureconomy/turkey-does-imperialism-turkish-foreign-policy-middle-east/

Vera, Joseph, Saborrido, Shayne, Robinson, Katiesha and El Chammas, Christopher, “The Industrial Revolution and Colonialism, Tirac.Weebly, 12 September 2009, https://tirac.weebly.com/conclusion.html

Weber, Isabella, “Origins of China’s Contested Relation with Neoliberalism: Economics, the World Bank, and Milton Friedman at the Dawn of Reform,” Global Perspectives 1, no. 1, (2020): https://doi.org/10.1525/gp.2020.12271

Wilson Center, “Conversations with Mao Zedong: Talk with two Brazilian journalists [translated by Sergey Radchenko],” Wilson Center: Digital Archive International History Declassified - History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, September 2007, https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/123069

Workman, Daniel, “Turkey’s Top Trading Partners,” World’s Top Exports, 11 February 2021, https://www.worldstopexports.com/turkeys-top-import-partners/.

Winter, Chase, “Turkey, China Seek to Expand Economic Ties despite Political Differences,” Deutsche Welle (DW) News, 2 July 2019, https://www.dw.com/en/turkey-china-seek-to-expand-economic-ties-despite-political-differences/a-49425011

Yan Xuetong, “Chinese Values vs. Liberalism: What Ideology Will Shape the International Normative Order?,” The Chinese Journal of International Politics 11, no. 1, (2018): 1-22.

Yan Xuetong, “The Rise of China and Its Power Status,” The Chinese Journal of International Politics 1, no. 1, (2006): 5-33.Yang Chen, “Developments in China-Turkey Relations: A View from China,” Critical Sociology 46, no. 4-5, (2019): 777-787.

Yang, Chaochun-Sadi, “Historical Retrospection of the Cultural Exchange between China and Turkey,” Erdem 5, no. 15, (1989): 725-748.

Yang, Zhaojun, “Sino-Turkish Cultural Interchange in Retrospect,” in Zhou, Yiliang, ed., A History of Cultural Interchange between China and Other Countries, (Waldegg, Switzerland, Henan People’s Press, 1987): 526-544.

Yihong, Pan, Son of Heaven and Heavenly Qaghan: Sui-Tang China and its Neighbors, (Bellingham, Western Washington University, 1997)

Zan, Tao, “An Alternative Partner to the West? Turkey’s Growing Relations with China,” Middle East Institute, 25 October 2013, https://www.mei.edu/publications/alternative-partner-west-turkeys-growing-relations-china

Zan, Tao, “An overview of Turkish Studies in China,” Türkiye Araştırmaları Literatür Dergisi (TALID) 8, no. 15, (2010): 281-290.

Zan, Tao, “Uncertainty and Ambiguity: Turkey’s Perception on the Rise of China,’ Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3, no. 1, (2009): 66-79.

Zan, Tao, “An Alternative Partner to the West? China’s Growing Relations with China,” in Niv Horesh ed., Toward Well-Oiled Relations? China’s Presence in the Middle East following the Arab Spring (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016): 19-29.