Main Article Content
The challenge of nuclear proliferation in the Korean peninsula since 2006 with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea’s (DPRK) first nuclear test had not only drawn the global attention but created a perilous situation on the peninsula. Further the Hwasong-15 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) of DPRK that was tested in February 2023 and thereafter has heightened tensions between Washington and Japan with Pyongyang. The United States’ (U.S.) diplomatic efforts to engage North Korea through bilateral means in recent times resulted in the first historic summit in Singapore (2018) and later in Vietnam (2019). Though these are undoubtedly positive developments, however, in the absence of any tangible deal after the Hanoi summit, the big question remains will the U.S. and North Korea end their mutual misperceptions, and work towards a viable solution. At the moment, the very fact that since 2019, the U.S. and North Korea have had no official dialogues is evident that misperceptions and distrust continues and finding any sort of solution is going to be a very difficult task now that North Korea has closed its borders since the COVID-19 pandemic started. The more isolated Pyongyang is, the more belligerent it will become in testing its missiles.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Submission of a manuscript to the WILAYAH implies that the submitted work has not been published before (except as part of a thesis or report or abstract), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that all co-authors have approved its publication. The WILAYAH : International Journal of East Asian Studies adopts CC BY license. As such, we would be grateful if an acknowledgement accompanies the republication that the work was originally published in WILAYAH. The editors will ensure digital preservation of access to the journal content by the Journal depository section.
Although the Department of East Asian Studies is the publisher of the WILAYAH : International Journal of East Asian Studies, the views presented in the WILAYAH are entirely those of the contributors and do not reflect the official stand of the Department of East Asian Studies. The Department does not hold itself responsible for the accuracy of any article published. Publisher and co-publishers assume no responsibility, nor by the editors for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a result of any actual or alleged libellous statements, infringement of intellectual property or privacy rights, or products liability, whether resulting from negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any ideas, instructions, procedures, products or methods contained in the material therein.
Acton, James M. ., Lewis, Jeffrey, Wright, David, “DPRK RV Video Analysis,” Arms Control Wonk, 09 November 2018, https://www.armscontrolwonk.com/archive/1206084/dprk-rv-video-analysis/
Ahn, Taehyung “Patience or Lethargy?: U.S. Policy toward North Korea under the Obama Administration,” North Korean Review, Vol. 8, no. 1, (2012): 67-83, https://www.jstor.org/stable/43910292
Bayar, Gözde, “North Korean missile can reach anywhere in US: USFK,” AA Energy Anadolu Agency, 11 September 2019, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/energy/general/north-korean-missile-can-reach-anywhere-in-us-usfk/26032
BBC News, “North Korea: What missiles does it have?,” 4 January 2023 at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-41174689
Campbell, Charlie “'This Is All We Can Do': How the Japanese Are Preparing for a North Korean Nuclear Attack,” Time, 20 September 2017, https://time.com/4949262/north-korea-japan-nuclear-missiles-drills/
Cheng, Xiaohe ,“North Korea's Third Nuclear Test and Its Impact on Sino-North Korean Relations,” The Journal of East Asian Affairs, Vol. 27, no. 1, (2013): 23-46, https://www.jstor.org/stable/23595528
Choi, Jong Kun, “The Perils of Strategic Patience with North Korea,” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 38, no. 4, (2015):57-72, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0163660X.2015.1125829
____________ and Bae, Jong-Yun, “Security Implications of a Nuclear North Korea: Crisis Stability and Imperatives for Engagement,” Korea Observer, Vol. 47, no. 4, (2016): 809-811
Clemens, Walter, C., “North Korea's Quest for Nuclear Weapons: New Historical Evidence,” Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 10, no. 1, (2010):127 – 154, https://www.jstor.org/stable/23418882
Council on Foreign Relations, "North Korean Nuclear Negotiations, 1985 – 2019," https://www.cfr.org/timeline/north-korean-nuclear-negotiations
Cordesman, Anthony H., “Destabilizing Northeast Asia: The Real Impact of North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Programs,” CSIS, 5 September 2017, https://www.csis.org/analysis/destabilizing-northeast-asia-real-impact-north-koreas-nuclear-and-missile-programs
Davenport, Kelsey, “The Six-Party Talks at a Glance,” Fact Sheets & Breifs Arms Control Association, January 2022, https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/6partytalks
Davenport , Kelsey, “The U.S.-North Korean Agreed Framework at a Glance,” Fact Sheets & Briefs, Arms Control Association, February 2022, https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/agreedframework
Davenport, Kelsey, “Chronology of U.S.-North Korean Nuclear and Missile Diplomacy,” Fact Sheets & Breifs Arms Control Association, April 2022, https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/dprkchron
Fedchenko, Vitaly, North Korea’s Nuclear Test Explosion, 2009, SIPRI Fact Sheet, December 2009, https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/FS/SIPRIFS0912.pdf
Graham, Douglas, “George W. Bush describes Iraq, Iran and North Korea as "axis of evil,” History, 29 January 2002, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/bush-describes-iraq-iran-north-korea-as-axis-of-evil
Grinter, Lawrence, E., “The Six‐Party Talks and the Future Denuclearization and Rehabilitation of North Korea,” Pacific Focus, Vol. 23, no. (3) (2008): 294-311, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1976-5118.2008.00015.x
Kahn, Joseph “North Koreans Insist on Demand For New Reactor In Nuclear Talks,” The New York Times, 16 September 2005, https://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/16/washington/world/north-koreans-insist-on-demand-for-new-reactor-in-nuclear.html
Kelley, Robert, “North Korea's sixth nuclear test: What do we know so far?” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), 05 September 2017, https://www.sipri.org/commentary/expert-comment/2017/north-koreas-sixth-nuclear-test-wht-do-we-know-so-far
Kile, Shannon N, “12 Feb. 2013: Testing times in North Korea,” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), 12 February 2013, https://www.sipri.org/commentary/expert-comment/tue-02-12-2013-13-00/12-feb-2013-testing-times-north-korea.
Kimball, Daryl G., “The Agreed Framework at a Glance,” Arms Control Association Fact Sheet, September 2004, https://www.armscontrol.org/system/files/agreedframework.pdf
Kristensen Hans M. & Norris , Robert S., “North Korean nuclear capabilities,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 74, no. 1 (2018): 41-51, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00963402.2017.1413062
Kwon, K.J., “North Korea missile test earns Kim Jong Un's praise,” CNN, 25 August 2016, https://edition.cnn.com/2016/08/24/world/north-korea-missile-test-kim-jong-un/index.html
Lee, Karin and Choi, Julia, “North Korea: Unilateral and Multilateral Economic Sanctions and U.S. Department of Treasury Actions 1955-April 2009,” The National Committee on North Korea, 28 April 2009, https://www.ncnk.org/sites/default/files/DPRK_Sanctions_Report_April_2009.pdf
McLaughlin, Jonathan, “North Korea Missile Milestones – 1969-2017, Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control,” 23 January 2018, https://www.wisconsinproject.org/north-korea-missile-milestones/
Mikheev, Vasily, “Russian Strategic Thinking toward North and South Korea,” in Gilbert Rozman, Kazuhiko Togo, and Joseph Ferguson, eds., Russian Strategic Thought toward Asia. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006): 191-192.
Nilsson-Wright, John, “North Korea's nuclear tests: How should Trump respond?,” BBC News, 03 September. 2017, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-41143589
“North Korea claims first nuclear test,” The Guardian, 9 October 2006, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/oct/09/northkorea
O’Hanlon , Michael E., “After a modest step forward in the Korean Peninsula, how to think about nuclear weapons and sanctions,” Brookings, 27 April 2018, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/04/27/after-a-modest-step-forward-in-the-korean-peninsula-how-to-think-about-nuclear-weapons-and-sanctions/
Panda, Ankit, “The right way to manage a nuclear North Korea,” Foreign Affairs, 19 November 2018, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/north-korea/2018-11-19/right-way-manage-nuclear-north-korea
Pollack, Joshua, “Why Does North Korea Have A Gas-Graphite Reactor?,” Arms Control Work, 16 October 2009, https://www.armscontrolwonk.com/archive/502504/why-does-north-korea-have-a-gas-graphite-reactor/
Sanders-Zakre, Alicia and Davenport, Kelsey , 5 Myths on Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea, Arms Control Now, 21 August 2017, https://www.armscontrol.org/blog/2017-08-21/5-myths-nuclear-diplomacy-north-korea
Seth, Shobhit, “Why North Korea Hates the U.S.,” Investopedia, 27 August 2021, https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/032515/why-north-korea-hates-us.asp
Shin, Hyonhee, “Satellite images show N. Korea tried out rocket engine in 'very important' test–experts,” Reuters, 09 December 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/northkorea-missiles-idUKL4N28J1OK
Singh, Jaswant, “Against nuclear apartheid,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 77, no. 5, (1998): 41-55, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/asia/1998-09-01/against-nuclear-apartheid
Six-Party Talks, Nuclear Threat Initiative, 8 April 2011, https://media.nti.org/pdfs/6ptalks.pdf
Standifer, Cid, “Timeline: A Brief History of North Korea’s Nuclear Weapon Development,” USNI News, 01 September (2017), https://news.usni.org/2017/09/01/timeline-brief-history-north-korean-nuclear-weapon-development
Stavridis, James, “What America Must Do Now, After North Korea's Summit with South Korea,” Time, 27 April 2018, https://time.com/5258118/north-korea-south-summit-donald-trump-nuclear-talks/
The White House, “Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit,” Statements & Releases, 12 June 2018, https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/briefings-statements/joint-statement-president-donald-j-trump-united-states-america-chairman-kim-jong-un-democratic-peoples-republic-korea-singapore-summit/
The White House, “Press Gaggle by Press Secretary Jen Psaki Aboard Air Force One En Route Philadelphia, PA,” Press Release, 30 April 2021, https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/press-briefings/2021/04/30/press-gaggle-by-press-secretary-jen-psaki-aboard-air-force-one-en-route-philadelphia-pa/
United Nations Security Council, “Security Council Condemns Nuclear Test by Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1718,” Press Release, 14 October 2006, https://press.un.org/en/2006/sc8853.doc.htm
U.S. Department of State, “Department Press Briefing – August 3, 2021,” Press release, 3 August 2021, https://www.state.gov/briefings/department-press-briefing-august-3-2021